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How to Specify

Nonmetallic Sealless

Pumps for Transferring

Acidic, Caustic, Abrasive

and Toxic Solutions







Acids, Caustic solutions

CHEM-GARD Horizontal Centrifugal Pump, FLEX-I-LINER

Sealless Self-Priming Peristaltic Pumps, SUMP-GARD

Thermoplastic Vertical Pump



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Kenneth Comerford

Vice President

Vanton Pump and Equipment Corp.


Ever tightening regulations and heightened

environmental responsibility have driven industrial

and municipal facilities to rethink leak prevention,

particularly when handling acidic, caustic and

abrasive solutions that cause packing and

mechanical seals to fail, and toxic solutions that

demand failsafe containment. To transfer these

solutions, operations and engineering management

is relying increasingly on sealless, non-metallic

pumps. Given the variety of types offered, recent

advances in pump design and the myriad of

fluid-contact materials available, this article

attempts to update specifiers with guidelines

needed to select the optimum sealless pump

according to individual application parameters.


Heightened awareness of environmental, safety and maintenance issues

in recent years has made process-fluid leakage a paramount concern in

chemical processing plants and municipal wastewater facilities. The

ability of sealless pumps to prevent or minimize leakage has made them

the often-preferred choice for pumping of acidic, caustic and abrasive

solutions that cause seals fail, as well as toxic solutions that require

absolute containment. After years of being considered niche products

for specialty applications, sealless pumps have become mainstream.


Pump design trends with respect to the handling of corrosive and

abrasive fluids, point to the use of sealless configurations to minimize

leakage, and the specification of nonmetallic, chemically inert, and

abrasion-resistant materials of construction to ensure resistance to

acids, caustics, salts and other aggressive fluids. To select the optimum

sealless pump for an application, one must become familiar with the

technical and economic issues involved in the pump-selection process,

the available pump types, and the various nonmetallic materials that are

suitable for the service.


Defining a sealless pump


The Hydraulic Institute (Parsippany, NJ) defines a sealless pump as one

in which the impeller shaft is completely contained in a sealed,

pressurized vessel (called the containment shell) that contains the

process fluid. Leakage of the pump fluid into the surrounding

environment is prevented by the exclusive use of static, rather than

dynamic, sealing technology. Only two pump designs meet this

definition: the magnetic-drive pump (MDP), in which the impeller shaft

is driven by a magnetic-coupling arrangement, and the canned-motor

pump (CMP), which features a rotating magnetic field within the motor

stator. The Hydraulic Institute definition is therefore valid, but

unnecessarily limiting. For the purpose of this article, a sealless pump

is defined as one that does not use packing or mechanical seals to

isolate the process fluid.


This broader definition permits consideration of a larger group of pump

designs. There is, however, no intent to imply that these other

sealless-pump designs eliminate the risk of hazardous or toxic

emissions. This discussion is based on a search of commercially

available designs with a focus on ones whose fluid-contacting parts are

made of nonmetallic materials. No implication is made that this search

has been all-inclusive and that all commercial products have been



A wide variety of nonmetallic materials is available for the construction

of wetted pump components used in corrosive-fluid applications.

These include thermoplastics, thermosets and elastomers. A general

knowledge of the characteristics of each class of material is helpful in

selecting the proper one for a particular application. Table 1

summarizes the significant physical characteristics of the rigid plastics

and Table 2 compares the elastomers used most often in aggressive

fluid applications.

Sealless pump types


If the elimination of the mechanical seal is an important factor in pump

selection, then there are other pump types, in addition to the MDP and

CMP, that deserve consideration. But the choices narrow as application

and service requirements become more stringent.


For instance, if the pump must be chemically resistant to the process

fluid, the scope becomes limited to units with wetted components made

of the stainless steels, high and exotic alloys and nonmetallics. If the

analysis is restricted to applications where non-metallic materials are

considered ideal for providing the required chemical resistance, then

the options are limited to five commonly used sealless pumps, whose

wetted parts are made of thermoplastic, thermoset and elastomeric

materials. These configurations are the magnetic-drive pump, the

coupled wet-pit vertical sump pump, the flexible-tube pump, the

flexible-liner pump and the controlled-volume diaphragm pump.

The next segment of this article briefly describes the design principles of

each of these nonmetallic pump configurations. Subsequently, the

critical design factors are detailed.


Magnetic drive pump


The magnetic-drive centrifugal pump (Figure 1) offers flows to

approximately 1,000 gal/min (227 m³/hr), and heads up to 350 ft (107

m). A nonmetallic containment shell or can, encloses and statically

seals the entire impeller-rotor assembly, as well as the pumped fluid.

This pump has two shafts. The driven shaft is located in the liquid end

of the pump and is supported by sleeve bearings. The impeller and the

inner magnet are mounted on this shaft. The other shaft, called the

driving shaft, is either a close-coupled motor shaft or one that is

supported by antifriction bearings in the pump-bearing housing. The

driving magnet surrounds the containment shell and is mounted on this


Coupled, vertical sump pump


The coupled, wet-pit vertical sump pump (Figure 2) discussed here is a

non-metallic sump pump that does not employ shaft-sealing

arrangements. It offers flow rates up to 4,000 gal/min (908 m³/hr) and

heads up to 350 ft (107 m), and can be used in sumps as deep as 50 ft

(15 m).


In this class of pumps, the impeller's hydraulic design is of a radial type,

and the pumped fluid exits through a separate discharge pipe rather

then coming up through the column. The pumped fluid that fills the

column is returned to the sump through radial leakage holes in the

column. The pressure in the column is atmospheric at the uppermost

leakage hole situated below the manhole cover, so that the liquid level

in the column remains below the point at which the shaft penetrates the

pump support plate — hence a shaft liquid seal is not required. A

dynamic vapor seal is employed in many cases, at the juncture between

the shaft and cover plate to prevent escape of corrosive fumes that

might attack the motor and its support bracket. The open-line shaft

bearings are typically product-lubricated.


Vertical pumps are furnished in a variety of configurations, including:

cantilevered-shaft designs, which are suitable for dry-running

conditions; vortex-recessed impeller designs, for handling fluids with

solids or stringy debris; and segmented-shaft designs, for installation in

extremely deep sumps, or for installations of tall pumps in

low-headroom areas.

Flexible-tube pump


The flexible-tube pump (Figure 3) does not use mechanical seals.

Instead, the fluid is contained within the smooth walls of an elastomeric,

tubular structure and is moved forward as the tube is squeezed by a

rotating element. As the squeezed tube returns to it natural shape, the

vacuum produced by the displaced fluid draws more fluid into the tube.

Pumping is achieved by a gentle, peristaltic action that allows for a

controllable flow of the fluid trapped between the two contact points on

the inside of the tube. This configuration requires no seals, glands or

valves. Models are available with flow rates up to 200 gal/min (45

m³/hr) and differential pressures to 200 psi (1379 kPa).

Flexible-liner pump


The flexible-liner pump (Figure 4) moves the fluid forward peristaltically

via an eccentrically mounted rotor that applies pressure from the inside

of a flexible liner within the pump body. Fluid is contained within a

channel-like cavity formed by the outer surface of this elastomeric liner

and the inner surface of the thermoplastic pump body. The rotor is

mounted on an eccentric shaft that oscillates within the liner and

progressively moves the sealing contact point between the liner and

pump body, effecting a squeegee action on the trapped fluid.

Figure 4


Flexible-liner pump


The flexible-liner pump is available in either close-coupled or

pedestal-mounted configurations. It is self-priming and has no stuffing

boxes, glands, valves or gaskets. Flow rates range from 0.30 to 40

gal/min (.075 to 9 m³/hr), with a maximum differential pressure of 30 psi

(207 kPa). The pump can be driven by an electric, gasoline or air motor.


Diaphragm pump


The controlled-volume diaphragm pump (Figure 5) has a flexible

diaphragm that directly contacts the process fluid. This diaphragm also

acts as a seal between the drive mechanism and the pumped liquid.

Many design configurations are available. The diaphragm can be driven

mechanically, hydraulically, pneumatically or electromagnetically. The

pumps are available in single-, double- and multiple-diaphragm

configurations. All diaphragm pumps are sealless and self-priming, and

can be run dry without causing damage. Flow rates of 200 gal/min (45

m³/hr) and outlet pressures of 100 psig (6.89 bar) are common.

Figure 6 - This magnetic-drive,

close-coupled pump is shown with wet end

opened and the solid,

molded-thermoplastic casing, impeller

and bearing housing exposed. All

components are produced from

polypropylene or polyvinylidene

fluoride. In this design, no metal

comes in contact with the pumped fluid.

Figure 7 - Cut-away view of a vertical

centrifugal sump pump made of

polyethylene showing rugged ribbed

column construction, molded

thermoplastic casing and impeller, and a

thick-sectioned nonmetallic sleeve that

isolates the stainless steel shaft from

the fluid. There are no bearings inside

the fluid cavity and no seals, except

for the nonmetallic vapor seal in the

cover plate, which protects the motor

bracket assembly from corrosive fumes.

Figure 8 - In a flexible-tube pump, the

tube passes through the pump body, where

a set of rotating rollers compresses the

tube and enables flow.

Figure 9 - Pedestal-mounted

flexible-liner pump with all

fluid-contacting parts made of

nonmetallic materials.

Figure 10 - The flexible-liner pump has a

wide choice of body-block and liner

materials. Liner materials include

natural or butyl rubber, neoprene,

fluoropolymers, ethylene-propylene-diene

monomer (EPDM), Buna-N and

chlorosulfonated PE. Liners are shown

with various pump casing materials,

which are: Left to right (top row): PP,

Teflon, Rulon; (bottom row): PE,

stainless steel, PP.



Magnetically driven pumps


In the magnetic-drive pump, the pump casing is a pressure-containment

component whose strength is a significant characteristic. Mechanical

strength is also an important factor to consider when determining the

flange loading that can be carried by the pump. MDPs are available

with metal casings that are lined with thermoplastics or constructed of

fiberglass-reinforced thermoset resins and solid, molded

thermoplastics. Some solid thermoplastic designs also incorporate

cast-iron structural supports to provide enhanced pressure-containing

and nozzle-load capabilities that match those of metal pumps meeting

ANSI process-pump standards.


When considering the use of metal casings lined with corrosion-resistant

thermoplastics, special consideration of the service conditions is critical.

The following questions should be addressed when selecting the

special material: How will the lining hold up under the flow conditions?

How abrasion-resistant is the lining material? How significant is the

danger of wear or pinholing, which might lead to corrosion of the metal

or contamination of the product? These concerns become less

significant as lining thickness increases, or with designs that utilize

thick-sectioned, replaceable wet-end components.


Driven shaft: This component features a stainless-steel or high-alloy

shaft that is completely encapsulated, or sleeved, in a chemically inert,

nonmetallic material, such as polypropylene (PP) or polyvinylidene

fluoride (PVDF). This design provides strength, and allows one to select

the thermoplastic material based on the required corrosion resistance to

the chemicals being pumped. Some pumps utilize a ceramic shaft,

which eliminates concern about chemical resistance or product



Bearing carrier or housing: This structural component houses the

wet-end bearings. The bearing housing features either solid

thermoplastic construction (Figure 6) or a plastic-lined metal

component. The same precautions noted for selecting the

thermoplastic with suitable corrosion resistance for pump casings apply

here. Bearings that are immersed in the process fluid are generally

furnished in non-metallic materials, such as ceramics, carbon-filled

polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), or silicon carbide


Containment shell (the can): The containment shell, like the casing,

must withstand high pressure. Its material of construction is selected

according to the required corrosion resistance and mechanical strength.

Most nonmetallic MDPs utilize a two-layer can, whereby the inside can

— the one in contact with the corrosive fluid — is made from chemically

inert fluoropolymers. The outer can, which is not in contact with the

aggressive fluid, and mainly provides mechanical strength, is generally

furnished in a fiber-reinforced-plastic resin composite. Sometimes, the

outer can is of metallic construction. In addition to providing corrosion

resistance, the nonmetallic cans generate less heat than metallic ones.

Heat is generated by wet-end-bearing friction, by hydraulic losses due

to the rotation of the inner magnet in the fluid and by eddy currents on

the surface of the can, caused by the rotating magnetic field in the

coupling. This heat is carried away by circulating some of the pumped

fluid between the outside of the inner magnets and inside of the can.

The circulated fluid leaves the can at a higher temperature than that at

which it entered, and the temperature of the liquid in the can is actually

higher than the process temperature. Non-magnetic cans effectively

avoid troublesome eddy currents and the associated heat generation

that reduce pump efficiency and reliability


Driven magnet: The inner magnet is constructed of rare-earth metals

such as samarium cobalt or neodymium. To provide the chemical

resistance required, these magnets are completely encapsulated with



Coupled, vertical sump pumps


These chemical pumps, intended for corrosive services, are available in

PP, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC),

PVDF and fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP). Wetted parts of the pump

assembly consist of the portion of the pump shaft situated below the

pump mounting plate (also called a coverplate), the shaft sleeve

bearings, the casing, the impeller and the pump column, which

structurally supports the immersed casing and shaft (Figure 7).

This pump is available in various design configurations. Typically, the

motor mounts above the mounting plate. In cantilevered designs,

which are recommended for use where dry running may occur or

where acceptable wet-bearing lubrication is not attainable, the pump

shaft is supported by anti-friction bearings above the mounting plate.

There are no bearings immersed in the fluid. These pumps are limited

to sump depths of approximately 5 ft (1.5 m), but with tail pipes they

can effectively be used in slightly deeper sumps.


Motor-support configurations: For light-duty, low-cost and intermittent

service, the pump motor may be mounted directly on top of the

thermoplastic mounting plate. On the more rugged, heavy-duty

designs, the motor is mounted on a cast-iron, motor-support pedestal.

This pedestal elevates the motor above the mounting plate, as well as

above the vapor seal in the coverplate, thereby protecting the motor

from exposure to trace amounts of corrosive fumes that might escape

through the seal. The elevation also provides the vertical height

necessary to utilize separate anti-friction bearings for extra shaft support

Shaft configurations: When selecting a vertical pump, the user should

note that reliability is, in part, dependent on whether the shaft is

supported by means of a cantilever or by a wet bearing.


In wet-bearing designs, the shaft is supported from above the mounting

plate using antifriction, grease-lubricated bearings in the pedestal, and

is additionally supported from below the mounting plate with

product-lubricated sleeve bearings.


Material selection is the key to protecting these bearings from the fluid.

The choice for the outer bearings includes ceramic, silicon carbide,

siliconized carbide, carbon-filled PTFE and glass-filled PTFE. For

extreme conditions, the shaft journals (or inner bearings) are

constructed of ceramic materials.


It is important to note that wet bearings must remain wet in order to

operate properly. Serious damage can occur if wet bearings are

allowed to run dry. Sealless sump pumps provide bearing lubrication

by tapping fluid from the pump discharge and routing it to each bearing.

This product lubrication method is required because the upper wet

bearings are not flooded by the liquid in the sump when the liquid level

is low. Furthermore, when the pumped fluid contains solid particles

that can damage the wet bearings, an independent clean-water flush

must be incorporated in the pump design.


By definition, a cantilevered sump pump must provide all shaft support


from above the mounting plate. This design stipulation stems from the

fact that the impeller is overhung on the pump shaft and is not

supported from below the mounting plate. Additionally, in the

cantilever sump pump, the hydraulic radial and axial loads must be

sustained by the anti-friction bearings located in the motor pedestal.

The shaft must be rugged and of a large-enough diameter to minimize

shaft deflection and stresses caused by these hydraulic loads. It also

requires heavy-duty antifriction bearings that can carry the larger loads

imposed by a cantilever design.


Unlike horizontal, overhung designs, these vertical pump configurations

may require different bearings and shaft diameters as the pump length,

and hence the overhung length, changes. Corrosion and potential

metal contamination of the fluid can be prevented by constructing the

shaft of Type 300 Series stainless steel, and sleeving the shaft with a

thermoplastic material. If metal contamination is not a problem,

superior corrosion resistance can be achieved by upgrading from

stainless steel to more-costly metal alloys. In any case, it is important to

select the shaft and encapsulation material on the basis of cost,

anticipated service life and the ability to resist attack from the process



Flexible-tube pumps


Flexible-tube or flexible-hose pumps were originally designed for

low-flow metering applications, and have gradually worked their way

from the laboratory into production-level applications. They handle

slurries, high-viscosity fluids and abrasives, can be run dry, and have

excellent self-priming capabilities. Pulsations are present in the

discharge line due to the nature of the pumping mechanism. The

following section discusses the three major assemblies of the flexible

tube pump — the head, tubing and drive.


Pump head: The pump head contains the tubing, the roller or

shoe-drive assembly that traps the liquid in the tube, and the casing that

houses these components. The rollers or shoes squeeze the outside of

the tube against the bore of the casing, trapping the liquid between the

squeeze points (Figure 8). Since the corrosive liquid does not contact

the head under normal operating conditions, the head on larger

industrial units is usually constructed from cast-metal components.

Smaller, lighter-duty units, which are often used for metering

applications, may have heads constructed of rigid plastic. Duplex

systems, in which two heads utilize one drive, provide higher flows and

reduced pressure pulsation.


Tubing: A variety of elastomeric materials, including polyurethane,

chlorosulphonated polyethylene, and nitrile, butyl and natural rubber,

are available for tubing construction. Some manufacturers offer

proprietary materials, such as cord-reinforced tubing or special natural

and synthetic rubber or plastic composites designed for specific service

requirements. Although numerous references offer information on the

chemical resistances and temperature limitations of these standard and

proprietary elastomeric materials, they often fail to account for variables

such as fatigue, repetitive flexing and similar factors


The service life of a flexible tube pump is highly dependent on the

specific material selected for the tubing. Since the pumped fluid is

totally contained inside the tubing, the fatigue life and the maximum

pressure of these pumps are dictated by the material characteristics and

the fluids being pumped. Flexible-tube-pump hoses undergo many

cycles of compressive and tensile stress. Even if the original tubing

were replaced by tubing with similar characteristics, the pump might

not perform as it did with the original material, unless that material were

provided by the original supplier.


Drive: Most flexible-hose pumps operate at a shaft speed below the

motor's synchronous speed. This is achieved by employing reducing

gears or a variable-speed drive. The use of a variable-speed drive

permits the pump flowrate to be varied so that specific metering

requirements are met. This also helps extend the fatigue life of the



Flexible-liner pumps


Flexible-liner pumps are available in close-coupled configurations with a

C-face motor, and frame-mounted designs coupled to a foot-mounted,

horizontal motor (Figure 9). These units are self-priming, can be run

dry, and can dependably handle slurries and viscous liquids. Like

flexible-tube pumps, flexible-liner pumps also tend to produce pressure

pulsations. At selected speeds, however, the pumping action is gentle

enough to prevent the settling out of suspensions and provide for the

effective handling of latex emulsions and similar materials. Duplex

designs are available for higher flows and for reducing the pulsation

tendency. The use of two opposing eccentric shafts oriented 180 deg

out of phase cancels pumping pulsations generated within each fluid

cavity. The user should provide flexible-hose suction and discharge

connections to avoid transmitting piping loads to the pump nozzles and

system piping.


Flexible-liner pumps operate at 1,800 rpm or less and are available with

variable-speed drives. Unlike some positive-displacement pumps,

flexible-liner pumps can be operated at zero flow for short periods of

time, but it is not recommended that the differential pressure exceed 30

psi (207 kPa) for continuous service on most sizes. The major

components consist of the liner, body block, rotating assembly, cover

plate and bearing frame.


The two components for which material selection is critical are the body

block and the liner. These are the only components in contact with the



Rotating assembly: The rotating assembly of the flexible-liner pump

consists of an eccentric rotor that is mounted on an overhung,

frame-mounted shaft, and is completely isolated from the pumped fluid.

The liner acts as a joint gasket between the pump body and cover

plate, and between the body and the bearing frame. Since the

aggressive fluid does not contact the rotor, the rotor does not require

special materials of construction. As the rotor oscillates within the liner,

it creates a sealed, rolling contact point between the inside surface of

the body block and outer surface of the liner. This imparts a progressive squeegee action on the trapped fluid


Body block: The body block contains the suction and discharge nozzles,

and is considered to be the pump casing. Constructed from rigid

thermoplastics, the body block is sandwiched between the two external

flanges of the liner, which act as gaskets. The interior surface of the

bore is in direct contact with the fluid, making material selection critical.

Standard units provide a choice of ultra high-molecular-weight

polyethylene (UHMWPE), PP and PTFE (Figure 10)


Flexible liner: The liner is a thick-walled, molded elastomeric

component that can readily be replaced in the field without the use of

special tools. Only the outside circumference of the rugged unit is in

contact with the pumped fluid. Its cross section forms an "H" pattern —

the vertical legs of the "H" act as static gaskets between the body block,

the cover plate and the bearing frame. It is this feature that makes the

flexible-liner pump a "sealless" pump. The flanges on this liner are

pressed to the sides of the body block by concentric grooves on the

pedestal assembly and cover plate, isolating the fluid within the formed



Although this type of pump is well suited for pumping clear or viscous

liquids and slurries with soft solids, it may experience difficulty with

fluids that contain hard or sharp solids. The wide choice of liner

materials available, and the ease with which liners can be changed,

makes it economically feasible to utilize a single flexible-liner pump for

numerous applications.


Figure 11 - Shown is a cutaway of a

controlled-volume diaphragm pump with

double diaphragms and check valves


Diaphragm pumps


The controlled-volume diaphragm pumps are widely used with viscous

liquids, abrasive slurries, shear-sensitive liquids (such as paint) and

fluids containing small, suspended solids. The diaphragm's relatively

low oscillation frequency and low velocity are gentle on the fluid being



The air-operated, duplex nonmetallic pump is the type most widely used

in the CPI. This configuration features two diaphragms linked by a

common shaft (Figure 11). An air-valve mechanism controls the

oscillating stroke of the shaft. The suction stroke that draws pumped

liquid into the pumping chamber doubles as the discharge stroke on the

opposing diaphragm, which expels liquid out of that pumping changer.

Like many positive-displacement pumps, the diaphragm pump has a

pulsating discharge pressure. Pulsation modulation is achieved via

dampeners and flexible-hose connections.


In addition, diaphragm pumps are self-priming, and can be run dry.

Air-operated units may be submerged if all of the pump components

are corrosion resistant, and if the driving air can be vented through the

pumped liquid. Automatic, variable-speed capability is achieved by

controlling the inlet-air pressure and flowrate. The major components

of the wet-end assembly include the body, diaphragm, and suction and

discharge check valves and valve seats.


Body: The body of the controlled-volume diaphragm pump is the pump

casing. The joint between the body and the diaphragm separates the

wet-end pumping chamber from the mechanical power end. Materials

of construction for this component include PP, PVDF and PTFE

Diaphragm: The flexing of this elastomeric component is responsible

for the pumping action. The material of construction for this critical

component should be selected on the basis of its resistance to the

aggressive fluid that is being handled. Options include neoprene,

polyurethane, PTFE, Buna-N, EPDM, fluoropolymers, and

chlorosulfonated PE


Check valves: The check valves control the flow of liquid into and out of

the pumping chamber, and are exposed to the corrosive pumped liquid.

Materials of construction are similar to those used for the diaphragm.

There is one check valve at the inlet and one at the exhaust of each

liquid pumping chamber


Check-valve seats: During the discharge stroke of the diaphragm, the

check valve at the inlet of the pumping chamber is pushed against the

seat at the pumping-chamber inlet. Likewise, during the suction stroke,

the check valve at the discharge end of the pumping chamber is pushed

against the seat at the respective location. Since the check-valve seats

are exposed to the pumped fluid, they must be chemically resistant.

They can be supplied in the same variety of elastomers as the



The selection process


The selection of the ideal sealless thermoplastic pump for a particular

application requires a thorough awareness of the application

requirements, including the ability of the pump to handle the required

flow and differential pressure, and what materials will perform reliably in

the service. When selecting a material of construction, three criteria are

used to simplify the choice of a specific thermoplastic: The maximum

fluid temperature, the desired abrasion resistance of the pump and the

chemical inertness of the pump material to the process fluid.

Copyright 2016 - Vanton Pumps (Europe) Ltd - All rights reserved

About Us

In the 1950, Vanton developed a revolutionary all-plastic pump for use in conjunction with the first heart-lung device. The design limited fluid contact to only two non-metallic parts: a plastic body block and a flexible liner. This was the birth of our Flex-I-Liner rotary pump. Its self-priming sealless design made it an industry standard for the handling of corrosive, abrasive and viscous fluids as well as those that must be transferred without contaminating the product. Vanton now offers the most comprehensive line of thermoplastic pumps in the industry.



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Vanton Pumps (Europe) Ltd.

Unit 4, Royle Park

Royle Street

Congleton CW12 1JJ